Best poems and an analysis of the insight on the topic of sociopathy quotes from famous poets. Instead, the heightened concern with consum ption and its power that gripped Yugoslav society speaks to a transform ed terrain for the day-today operation of socialist economics: An Analysis o f the Com m unist System New York, - xv 18 xvi I P rologue Following its appearance inThe N ew Class did its share to reinforce c of rhe stock Cold War stereotypes of com m unist injustice, the aloof fat cat of the party-state nom enklatura arriving in a rare private autom obile to buy luxury goods in a restricted-access, foreign-currency store.
Special thanks are owed to Borislav Buca M itrovic, w ho got in touch with me after seeing his own work cited in one of my earlier articles and, over the course of a 13 A ck n o w led g m en ts I xi number of delighrful conversations in Belgrade, shared with me his deep personal understanding of the day-to-day practice of Yugoslav advertising and marketing, a real insider s perspective that I could not have hoped to get otherwise.
Djilas, once one of T ito s closest associates and later the Yugoslav dissident par excellence, used his book The N ew Class to deliver a blistering indictm ent of the bureaucracy that had emerged in the years after the C om m unists rise to power. If we are concerned with the developm ent of advertising, marketing, and retailing, for exam ple, it is critical to acknowledge the extent to which m any of the ideas and techniques of these industries and the ideology of business th at underlay those ideas and techniques were transnational in the truest and m ost rigorous sense of the term: The importance of education is emphasized a literary analysis of letters of war spartan mothers by society.
Real and m eaningful differences are at w ork here. A nother potent contribution to the reorientation of public values tow ard consum erism was the cultural and ideological im portation that accom panied Yugoslavia s massive export of Gastarbeiter labor to W estern Europe.
Such unifying forces were a rarity in this society, where ethnic, linguistic, religious, cultural, and economic differences long hampered the developm ent of pan-yugoslav values, attitudes, customs, and identities.
Usually men unaccom panied by their families, and often from the poorer parts of Yugoslavia, these w orkers typically returned home from time to time. Accordingly, this project has necessarily involved a search for evidence that may deepen our understanding of how, by whom, and with precisely what intentions the consumerist 1.
And so Yugoslavia is not yet gone: Things were not perfect at home, but they were good enough. Ivanka Ponikvar and the staff of the Am erican C enter in Ljubljana ensured that my time there as a Fulbright scholar was both profitable and pleasurable.
C onsum er behavior Social aspects Yugoslavia. Though it was alm ost certainly of less direct practical consequence than the bustling cross-border shopping trade, we should not discount the more subtle effects of another phenom enon, holiday tourism to the West.
And that it could take root across the staggeringly varied Yugoslav federation made the new consumer culture all the more im portant. And, as always, I owe the most to Michael Gorman. Nunzio, flattering, uncorked, his accustomed irritated.
Increasingly it is also an important focus of business history and cultural history more generally. Gunzelin Schmid N oerr, trans.
As a result, self-service shops, superm arkets, and departm ent stores that aspired to W estern ideals of luxury, choice, satisfaction, and m odernity started to spring up across Yugoslavia beginning as early as the late s. M ilovan D jilas, quoted in R obert D.
W hat had not too long before been shopping for sustenance was now becoming, in a more prosperous, m ore open, and m ore competitive Yugoslavia, shopping for satisfaction, self-expression, and status, prompting critics to fret that instead of the anticipated classless society the country was now veering tow ard a culture of status m arking and group differentiation of the sort th at Pierre Bourdieu w ould later describe in his analysis of consumption and taste.
To all these people, I am grateful. The most significant of the very rare exceptions in the secondary scholarship on the subject include two older studies: Raymond Grew, as ever, encouraged me in the toughest, friendliest, liveliest, and m ost helpful way, pushing me to try to write a history that w ould be big and ambitious and durable, challenging me to conceptualize Yugoslavia s consumer culture on my own term s, and at the same time m aking sure that I was ix 12 x I A ck n o w le d g m e n ts alerr to the tem ptations of interpretative overreach.
Self-management meant the injection of, at most, limited and imperfect market forces into the Yugoslav economy.
M ost immediately, this case holds im portant implications for the history of socialism and its capitalist com petitor.
Instead consumption continued, m ore predictably and com fortably, in its fam iliar status as a reward. Pierre B ourdieu, D istin ction: Needing no visas to visit practically any country in Europe by the m ids a happy outcom e of their state s peculiar geopolitical positioning between the two Cold War blocs they began streaming out of Yugoslavia on longer vacations, bringing back new European goods, new experiences of life as participants in the Western whirl of advertising and shopping, and new ideas about w hat their own national economy might be expected to offer consumers.
The Privatisation o f Public Space London.
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